The medications were then sent to the patient care areas and rescanned by nurses at the point of care to further reduce medication administration errors. First, the vendor should provide long-term on-site formal training and support that covers all shifts.
Also, in a geographically and organizationally coherent area like the pharmacy, systems may be so interconnected that it is impractical to implement components one at a time. These included hardware and software problems, and the role of vendors.
Ten interviews were conducted by two investigators between Dec and Aug Staff Resistance Staff resistance to bar code scanning system implementation was a prominent barrier identified in our interviews.
For example, inadequate training, process flow issues, and technology shortcomings contributed to resistance as pharmacy staff felt overwhelmed and developed negative perceptions about the technology. Through five iterative readings of the field notes, we developed a code list to characterize the factors that influenced the system implementation.
Several strategies for choosing a vendor were suggested. These errors may occur during any stage of the medication use process including ordering, transcribing, dispensing, administering, and monitoring. While the prospect of changing roles led to significant resistance in some cases, the change also presented an opportunity to identify new champions to help with the implementation process.
In an effort to get the pharmacy technicians familiar with scanning, the pharmacy implemented bar code-assisted dispensing for medications destined for the neonatal intensive care unit NICU 1 year before full deployment of the bar code scanning system.
The initial implementation of the pharmacy bar code scanning technology required a dedicated pharmacy-based medication repackaging center, which affixed two-dimensional bar codes onto the lowest unit dose of every medication that did not already have a bar code from the manufacturer.
Process Training As with any system implementation, training must be initiated early on. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning system implementation: This practice was originally intended to limit the number of daily fills by increasing the volume of medications dispensed.
As the interviews progressed, we asked our informants to help identify other staff members who were knowledgeable about the process. By allowing the technicians to optimize their own workflow, the pharmacy leaders overcame these unexpected challenges and fostered a collaborative working environment.
For example, training requirements are less uniform than those of physicians during CPOE implementation due to a larger variation in education and skill level within a pharmacy. I take it upon myself to fulfill the responsibilities.
To address many of these technology issues, pharmacists and pharmacy leaders identified the role of vendors as a critical success factor. Findings We identified three main barriers Fig 1 to pharmacy bar code scanning technology implementation at our hospital and strategies to overcome them.
This, in turn, encouraged users to find creative alternatives to scanning. Our case suggests that these principles hold true not only for physicians but also for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians with varying backgrounds, responsibilities and levels of education.
Increased time and resources would have been required to ensure that the training was appropriate for a range of skill sets and tailored to individual differences in learning curves. Changing roles were also an important cause of resistance among staff as some had entirely different job descriptions with the new system.
Most of the solutions to medication errors, such as computerized physician order entry CPOE systems, have focused on reducing errors at the medication ordering stage. While some were concerned that the technology would allow their own work to be tracked, others welcomed the opportunity to be able to track a medication through it entire cycle in the hospital.
Another challenge surfaced when the pharmacy leaders realized that the technicians found it easier to use their laptops and scanners in central pharmacy locations than in the individual areas where each medication is housed.
In a large hospital, these error rates can translate to more than 45, undetected dispensing errors annually. Our informants reported that in situations where the staff had increased collaboration and teamwork in a new role, the response to change was a favorable one.
The superuser model functions synergistically with formal training, and was used to implement bar code-assisted medication administration for nurses in the patient care areas subsequent to the pharmacy system implementation.
First, hospital leaders need to consider the true cost of technology implementation, beyond just software and hardware. The largest roadblocks are often related to process redesign and organizational resistance, and hospital leaders should devote sufficient financial resources and personal attention to this.
This behavior was unanticipated and therefore not addressed during the training process. As with other information systems, this tracking capability can be a double-edged sword, acting as either a barrier or facilitator to implementation. In general, problems that occur during implementation have led to complete halt of the project, 14 staff revolt, 15 or even poor patient outcome.
Certain pharmacy technicians thought that they were not adequately trained and identified this as an obstacle to system implementation.Referencing Executive Summary A Library Information System or Library OF LIBRARY AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR COLLEGE Library System with Barcode Reader.
Innovating Continuous Review Policies with RFID to Minimize The reader then receives and Table 2 details some advantages of using RFID versus using barcode. Computerized Library System Checkout and return are automated through a bar code reader Conclusions Based on the findings, 5/5().
Overcoming Barriers to the Implementation of a Pharmacy Bar Code Scanning System for Medication Dispensing: A Case Study.
To investigate the feasibility of using an automated tracking system, The primary benefits of the barcode system were By using a static reader. indicated for use in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory findings System reference library was System computer.
The barcode reader.Download